Sep 28 2021 |
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本试卷是EXIN DevOps Foundation (DEVOPSF.CH)模拟考试。 EXIN考试准则适用于该考试。
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1 of 40
There are many reasons for a company to become interested in DevOps.
When should companies become interested in DevOps?
When Agile practices do not seem to fit the company
When no other method gives the necessary results
When Scrum and Lean practices have been implemented
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Which requirements should a DevOps team take into account when working on a backlog item?
Both non-functional and functional requirements
Neither non-functional nor functional requirements
Only functional requirements
Only non-functional requirements
3 of 40
从客户价值角度来讲，明确的“完成的定义”（Definition of Done）在DevOps中至关重要。
A clear Definition of Done is critical in DevOps and considers the value for the customer.
What is a good description of Done for DevOps?
A requirement is Done when it has been built.
A requirement is Done when it has been tested.
A requirement is Done when the product is accepted.
A requirement is Done when the product is in Production.
4 of 40
Tasks need to be prioritized. This prioritization takes place in the queue at the entry of the value stream.
Why does this prioritization often cause problems?
Because at this point, the decision is made how to build the deployment pipeline for the tasks that can be automated. This takes time, which causes delays.
Because enabling measurements of the key indicators in the value stream is done incorrectly or inefficiently, which leads to problems.
Because implementation of the use of visualization tools along with WiP-limits, with which one can identify the bottlenecks of the tasks, is done incorrectly.
Because the development of the as-is version and the to-be version of the stream must be created, as well as a list of the changes required. This takes a lot of time.
Because when many decisions are made before work even starts, like in the traditional approach, this causes massive delays.
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Why is the concept 'value stream' so important in DevOps?
The value stream helps employees to see and understand their daily tasks.
The value stream helps to analyze the as-is map and any attempts to improve metrics.
The value stream helps to identify when someone did their part of the work.
The value stream helps to realize a smooth and uniform flow through all process steps.
The value stream helps to realize local optimization in the current work practice.
6 of 40
Which idea is the origin of the concept 'deployment pipeline'?
A pipeline that carries a liquid creating flow
An assembly line such as a car plant
Modern processors that use parallel pipelining
The idea of using more than one assembly line
The process of deploying people to do different jobs
7 of 40
For DevOps, finding the balance between moving quickly and maintaining application reliability is important.
How does version control support this?
By allowing any member of the team to freely delete unnecessary files and documents
By allowing the formation of small independent and self-sufficient development teams
By applying specialized tools to eliminate or reduce waste and optimize processes
8 of 40
According to the US National Institute of Standards and technology (NIST), what is
an essential cloud computing characteristic?
广泛的网络访问权限（broad network access）
Broad network access
9 of 40
In DevOps, what should be done when process deficiencies are found?
All changes should be submitted to a backlog, so they can be released in a project or a Kaizen event.
Fixes should be found and implemented as soon as possible after detection of the deficiency.
Fixes should be found, approved by the change manager, and released based on priority.
Fixes should be found, approved by the continuous improvement manager, and released immediately.
Fixes should be postponed until the change can be included in an appropriate sprint.
10 of 40
A value stream map shows clearly where the inefficiencies in a value stream are.
Why should a value stream map be made?
To help optimize business processes
To see which people are not working hard enough
To speed up the Work-in-Progress (WiP)
To visualize which product line should be ended
11 of 40
DevOps relies heavily on the principles and practices of Lean Production. One of the types of waste in IT is 'task switching'.
From which original type of waste is this the translation for IT?
12 of 40
What is an advantage of having a DevOps team work together for a longer period?
The team does not have to improve the process anymore.
The team uses their experience to innovate and improve the process.
The team will start working more independently.
There is time left to process unexpected requests more often.
13 of 40
It is recommended that organizations customize and select DevOps practices that work in that organization. Organization-specific questions must be raised and organization-specific answers must be found.
Why is this a good idea?
Because DevOps publications do not always reflect reality and hide difficulties and failures.
Because that is the best way to become a DevOps engineer that can be hired for implementing DevOps.
Because there are too few publications and events about DevOps to form your opinion.
Because you know best how to implement DevOps in your own organization.
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a reason to keep the Work-in-Progress (WiP) limited?
To decrease loss of productivity
To help eliminate constraints
To help the rhythm of the flow
To increase resource utilization
15 of 40
Commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) is used to quickly get the results needed, because it takes time to develop your own software.
COTS should be used to support strategic business lines.
COTS requires customization and scripting to configure the system.
Using ready to use software is usually much cheaper.
Using ready to use software is more flexible.
16 of 40
Which thought is
Business and development work together throughout the project.
Responding to change is valued over following a plan.
Satisfying the customer through exact fulfillment of their requirements is a priority.
Working software is the primary measure of progress.
17 of 40
Configuration management makes it possible to scale IT infrastructure and software systems, without needing more people working on them.
How should changes to such a scaled environment ideally be done?
Through continuous integration
Through fully controlled scripts
Through test automation
Through the deployment pipeline
18 of 40
A company wants to reduce their time-to-market from years to months. One of their employees says they should consider using DevOps methods in the IT department.
Why would changing to DevOps help reduce their time-to-market?
Because DevOps integrates Development and Operations into a single team, there are fewer people employed.
Because DevOps teams are more expensive, they work more overtime and get a product on the market quicker.
Because DevOps uses self-sufficient dedicated teams, there is more agility to deal with changing product requirements.
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Which significant advantage does DevOps bring to an organization?
Eliminate fragility of a business system
Reduce cost for the customer
Reduce cultural challenges
20 of 40
help a DevOps team to successfully develop and deliver working software?
Forming a DevOps team for a short period of time during a project
Identifying, fixing and learning from errors as soon as they are found
Organizing DevOps teams around an organizational mission
Writing code for software to have built-in quality as a main goal
21 of 40
The most valuable information of a value stream map is taken from three key metrics.
What is one of these three key metrics?
Lead time combined with flow
Percentage complete and accurate
Process time divided by lead time
Value completed minus waste
22 of 40
A good version control system is one of the highest predictors of high performance in DevOps.
What is necessary to apply version control successfully?
A change in the culture of working with information and configuration
A significant increase in the speed of change implementation
The deliberate introduction of chaos and instability in Production
The use of a formalized and automated change management process
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When can the use of DevOps for organizational and technological changes lead to chaos and loss of control?
When the core business of the organization highly depends on information technology
When the organization is complex and wants to solve chronic problems
When the organization requires rapid changes to test new business ideas or hypotheses
When the rate of change in the information technology used by the organization is high
24 of 40
When looking at the emergence of DevOps, new ways of interacting between parties involved in software development triggered a need for new ways of IT management. This resulted in DevOps.
Which parties that found new ways to interact are meant?
Business and customers
IT departments and customers
IT development and operations
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What can cause difficulties when DevOps is adopted?
Limited use of virtualization
26 of 40
According to DevOps practices, what is the
way to increase the level of operational control?
Automating all manual operations
Defining appropriate roles and responsibilities
Designing control procedures
Improving operational governance
27 of 40
When switching to DevOps, a greater return on information technology is expected.
What differentiates DevOps from Agile, Scrum and Lean to meet this expectation?
DevOps accelerates the delivery of new and modified products between Dev and Ops.
DevOps accelerates the delivery of new and modified products to the market and customers.
DevOps ensures a quicker response to changes in the infrastructure within budget.
DevOps ensures a quicker response to incidents that hinder the organization’s value stream.
28 of 40
An organization has a legacy IT infrastructure. They want to start with DevOps.
What is a common approach in such an organization?
To start implementing DevOps as a software product, install it and start it
To start with a basic pipeline that performs at least assembly and initial testing
To start with a selection of the product with the greatest opportunities for optimization
To start with identifying those systems that are loosely connected with others
To start with the allocation of a certain proportion of working time for the improvement
29 of 40
An IT system is still being developed and maintained by many employees as a single entity.
What difficulty with adopting DevOps practices can be expected?
Assigning DevOps teams to separate areas of responsibility
Creating cross-functional teams to work on the organizational structure
Maintaining and versioning multiple APIs for backward compatibility
30 of 40
What is the DevOps way of solving incidents?
Escalate to the problem management team and create a solution until they solve the incident
Investigate the incident, run diagnostics, then identify and implement a workaround
See if a related incident occurred earlier and implement a similar solution to the problem
Trace the incident back to a recent deployment and roll the system back to a previous stable state
31 of 40
DevOps recommends visualization of the work done.
goals can be realized by visualization?
Please remember to choose 2 answers.
Building a pull-system
Dividing the work
Informing the customer
32 of 40
A company uses continuous deployment.
Whose decision should it be when to release new functionality?
The IT department
33 of 40
What are two common practices for reducing technical debt?
Formal change and release management practices
Incident management and request fulfilment practices
Increasing budget and resources
Refactoring and facing the issue
34 of 40
When implementing the deployment pipeline, problems are encountered. Initially, there are not enough pre-developed tests to ensure steady operation of the Production environment.
addresses this problem?
Create the pipeline and as many automations as possible, but do not use them until all the proper tests are in place.
Increase the coverage of the code with tests as technical debt, which must be addressed as soon as possible.
Let the pipeline run with the developed tests and deal with the potential issues in Production when they arise.
Use the pipeline as an integration system to deliver the written code to test and quality assurance (QA) only.
35 of 40
In traditional practices many things can go wrong with releases: some changes are not documented, the system has not been backed up fully, or there is no previous state of the system saved.
How does DevOps ensure frequent releases without these problems?
By automating releases
By letting Operations release
By making releases very small
By not documenting all changes
36 of 40
What is the
step in value stream mapping?
Create the requirements specification
Document the work done
Identify the key steps in the process
37 of 40
What is a difficulty of a rigid or monolithic IT architecture?
Changing and developing the IT architecture itself is difficult to do
Modifying services within the architecture is done independently
Updating to a new version without disabling the current version
Waiting for all components to be ready for a large-scale migration
38 of 40
The team works in one-week iterations and frequently encounters bottlenecks.
What is the
reaction of the team after they identify a bottleneck?
Eliminate the bottleneck as soon as possible
Lengthen the iteration in which a bottleneck is found
Limit the regular number of tasks in a batch
Use visualization tools along with WiP-limits
39 of 40
Sometimes, it is thought that DevOps is a part of Agile.
To which question does DevOps give an answer, that has nothing to do with Agile?
What can be done to release the software we develop quick enough to take a large market share?
What relationship with our customers is necessary, so that we understand their requirements better?
What should be done with a released product to make it useful and easy to operate?
40 of 40
What benefit does configuration management have?
It allows any team member to delete unwanted files without risk.
It allows key team members to be absent without problems.
It allows team members to see who changed which code at what date.
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